转载『《白玫瑰传单》第一份』


简介:“白玫瑰” 是纳粹德国时期一个知名的非暴力反抗组织。此团体于19426月至19432月间陆续发送了6张未具名的传单,主要内容在于呼吁人们参加反抗希特勒政权的运动。白玫瑰的传单广泛引用圣经、亚里斯多德、和诺瓦利斯,另外也包含了哥德、弗里德里希·席勒的言论。他们诉诸那些德国知识分子,相信他们能唤起大家发自内心的反对纳粹政权。
《白玫瑰传单》第一份译文

一个文明的国度,一个理性的民族,不经抗争地让一个不负责任、行为低劣的党派统治自己,怎能不以此为耻?无疑,任何诚实的德国人都会为如今的政府感到羞耻。当某一天,面纱从我们眼前滑落,当极其可怕的罪行曝光,我们当中谁能想到,我们和我们的子孙将面临多大的耻辱?

如果德意志民族已经堕落至此:行为败坏,精神溃散,听由一个有问题的政府来摆布;束手放弃自由意志——即让人成为万物之灵、让人之为人的最高原则;束手放弃改写历史的机会,让顾虑拖垮行动;如果德国民族已经个性泯灭,蜕变成没有脊梁,没有担当的懦弱群体,那他们就只配走向灭亡。

歌德说,德国民族具有悲剧色彩,就像犹太人、希腊人一样,但今天,他们更像被吸尽了骨髓、失去意志的空架子,让背信弃义、正在系统性实施虐待的政体,把所有的民众送进精神监狱,集体走向灭亡。而今,所有民众的内心已经不再沉稳,只有发现枷锁已经绑在自己身上了,才意识到自身的命运。

少数人看到了毁灭的威胁,他们英勇的警告,换来的却是死亡。对这样的勇士,人民永志不忘。如果想付诸行动的人们,都要等待别人迈出第一步,魔鬼的报复就会来得更快,直到最后一个受害者被投入贪婪的魔鬼之口。

身为基督教文化中的一员,在这最后时刻,我们当倾尽所能,为反对法西斯主义以及类似的国家政权体制而抗争,为这场上苍降于人类的惩罚而抗争。无论何时何地,哪怕在最后一个城池泡沫般破碎前,在最后一名青年沙场喋血前,越过自以为是的人种理论,阻止这个无神论战争机器的肆虐,这就是行动,因为身在其中,你无法避免戕害。

摘自弗里德里希·席勒《利库格斯和梭伦的立法》

就其目的而言,《利库格斯法典》是一部政治学和人性知识的杰作。他希望开端强大有力,无懈可击,并牢固建立在自身原则之上,以政治效力和持久性为奋斗目标。

据此他最大程度地实现这一目标。但如果把利库格斯的主张和人类的目标相比较,给人的第一感觉是憎恶大于认同。为了国家的利益,任何东西都可以牺牲,只有作为达成目的之手段的国家除外。国家本身永远不是终极目标,其重要性在于能成为实现人类目标的一种条件,而这一目标正是让全体人民在综合力量上的发展、进步和改善。

如果一个国家阻碍了人类内在能力的发展,如果他妨碍了人类精神的进步,无论它的设计多么出色,无论它内在运作方式多么完美,它都是有害的,应受谴责而非赞誉。这时,国家已异化为持久行恶的魔,运转的时间越长,产生的危害越大,它的长治久安与其说是名声鹊起,不如说是耻辱加身。

斯巴达,以所有道德情感为代价,以国家资源为保障,建立了一个政治体制。这里没有夫妻之爱,不讲母爱,不行孝道,无视友谊,所有人只是公民,公民的公德标准代表了一切美德。

国家法律规定斯巴达人可以对他们的奴隶施行不人道。对这些奴隶(他们来自输掉的战争)这些不幸的战争受害者而言,人道这个概念本身已经受到了侮辱和虐待。斯巴达法典中还颁布了危险原则,就是人应该被视为手段,而不是目的。至此,法律和道德的自然基础已被这法律所摧毁。

相比之下,在罗马之前的军营里,粗野的士兵盖尤斯·马丘斯呈现出了多么令人钦佩的一面:他宣布放弃复仇和胜利,因为他不能忍受母亲流下的眼泪!

利库格斯律政只能在一种条件下维持:那就是人民在精神上的静默。因此,它只是一个国家无法达成其最高目标、唯一目标下的一种维持。

摘自歌德的《埃皮米尼德斯的觉醒》第二幕第四场:

勇士从无底的深渊走来
精灵他自无底的深渊放胆升起
带着狡猾和强大的意志
他可以征服半个世界
却以这深渊为必然归宿
恐惧篡取了他的心灵
徒劳中他仍在反抗
仍与他同队列的人们
将随其堕落一同灭亡

希望:我看到我心中的善人
在夜晚同聚
在沉默中等待
在沉默中等待
自由  这美好的字眼
在嗫嚅中被悄声道出
直到破冰新局的到来
天亮后的人们
重享喜悦
踏上神殿的台阶
大声呼喊
自由!自由!

English Translation

Nothing is so unworthy of a civilised nation as allowing itself to be governed without opposition by an irresponsible clique that has yielded to base instinct. It is certain that today every honest German is ashamed of his government.
Who among us has any conception of the dimensions of shame that will befall us and our children when one day the veil has fallen from our eyes and the most horrible of crimes - crimes that infinitely outdistance every human measure - reach the light of day? If the German people are already so corrupted and spiritually crushed that they do not raise a hand, frivolously trusting in a questionable faith in lawful order of history; if they surrender man's highest principle, that which raises him above all other God's creatures, his free will; if they abandon the will to take decisive action and turn the wheel of history and thus subject it to their own rational decision; if they are so devoid of all individuality, have already gone so far along the road toward turning into a spiritless and cowardly mass - then, yes, they deserve their downfall. Goethe speaks of the Germans as a tragic people, like the Jews and the Greeks, but today it would appear rather that they are a spineless, will-less herd of hangers-on, who now - the marrow sucked out of their bones, robbed of their centre of stability - are waiting to be hounded to their destruction. So it seems - but it is not so. Rather, by means of gradual, treacherous, systematic abuse, the system has put every man into a spiritual prison. Only now, finding himself lying in fetters, has he become aware of his fate. Only a few recognised the threat of ruin, and the reward for their heroic warning was death. We will have more to say about the fate of these persons. If everyone waits until the other man makes a start, the messengers of avenging Nemesis will come steadily closer; then even the last victim will have been cast senselessly into the maw of the insatiable demon. Therefore every individual, conscious of his responsibility as a member of Christian and Western civilisation, must defend himself as best he can at this late hour, he must work against the scourges of mankind, against fascism and any similar system of totalitarianism. Offer passive resistance - resistance - wherever you may be, forestall the spread of this atheistic war machine before it is too late, before the last cities, like Cologne, have been reduced to rubble, and before the nation's last young man has given his blood on some battlefield for the hubris of a sub-human. Do not forget that every people deserves the regime it is willing to endure!

From Freidrich Schiller's The Lawgiving of Lycurgus and Solon:

Viewed in relation to its purposes, the law code of Lycurgus is a masterpiece of political science and knowledge of human nature. He desired a powerful, unassailable start, firmly established on its own principles. Political effectiveness and permanence were the goal toward which he strove, and he attained this goal to the full extent possible under possible under the circumstances. But if one compares the purpose Lycurgus had in view with the purposes of mankind, then a deep abhorrence takes the place of the approbation which we felt at first glance. Anything may be sacrificed to the good of the state except that end for which the State serves as a means. The state is never an end in itself; it is important only as a condition under which the purpose of mankind can be attained, and this purpose is none other than the development of all man's power, his progress and improvement. If a state prevents the development of the capacities which reside in man, if it interferes with the progress of the human spirit, then it is reprehensible and injurious, no matter how excellently devised, how perfect in its own way. Its very permanence in that case amounts more to a reproach than to a basis for fame; it be comes a prolonged evil, and the longer it endures, the more harmful it is....
At the price of all moral feeling a political system was set up, and the resources of the state were mobilised to that end. In Sparta there was no conjugal love, no mother love, no filial devotion, no friendship; all men were citizens only, and all virtue was civic virtue.

A law of the state made it the duty of Spartans to be inhumane to their slaves; in these unhappy victims of war humanity itself was insulted and mistreated. In the Spartan code of law the dangerous principle was promulgated that men are to be looked upon as means and not as ends - and the foundation of natural law and of morality were destroyed by that law....

What an admirable sight is afforded, by contrast, by the rough soldier Gaius Marcius in his camp before Rome, when he renounced vengeance and victory because he could not endure to see a mother's tears!...

The state [of Lycurgus] could endure only under the one condition: that the spirit of the people remained quiescent. Hence it could be maintained only if it failed to achieve the highest, the sole purpose of a state.

From Goethe's The Awakening of Epimenides, Act II, Scene 4.
SPIRITS:
Though he who has boldly risen from the abyss
Through an iron will and cunning
May conquer half the world,
Yet to the abyss he must return.
Already a terrible fear has seized him;
In vain he will resist!
And all who still stand with him
Must perish in his fall.
HOPE:
Now I find my good men
Are gathered in the night,
To wait in silence, not to sleep.
And the glorious word of liberty
They whisper and murmur,
Till in unaccustomed strangeness,
On the steps of our temple
Once again in delight they cry:
Freedom! Freedom!

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