转载『白玫瑰传单』第三份



简介:“白玫瑰” 是纳粹德国时期一个知名的非暴力反抗组织。此团体于19426月至19432月间陆续发送了6张未具名的传单,主要内容在于呼吁人们参加反抗希特勒政权的运动。白玫瑰的传单广泛引用圣经、亚里斯多德、和诺瓦利斯,另外也包含了哥德、弗里德里希·席勒的言论。他们诉诸那些德国知识分子,相信他们能唤起大家发自内心的反对纳粹政权。 


《白玫瑰传单》第三份译文

理想而又完美的政体是种乌托邦,存在于柏拉图的理想国。一个国家不能建在纯理论基础上,它也要像人一样经历从新生到成长最终成熟的过程。文明常始于有雏形的城邦。自有人类以来就有了家庭,基于这种原始的契约性束缚,人们发展出理性,进一步才是公正基础上的社会和城邦,以民众的共同利益为最高法则。在这里国家政体和神谕教化应该是并行的,政体与信仰如同两条平行线。而乌托邦最吸引人的原因,在于其被世人追求或趋同的理想模式。

国家体制可以有多种表现形式,如民主制、君主立宪制等。在此我们不作断言,但有一件事需要明确:每个人都会诉求一个切合实际又公正开明的国家,一个能确保公民个体自由和整体利益的国家。因为,按照上帝的旨意,人理应自然地生活,追求自己的人生目标,追求世俗生活中的快乐,自立自强,能按自已的意愿做出选择,能独立自由地在国家的各个社区中工作和生活。(笔者注:此处描述的“上帝的旨意”并不符合圣经,而是从世俗的普世价值层面谈及人理应得到的有尊严的生存状态。人格尊严乃是上帝所赋予。但上帝的旨意并非止于世俗生活层面。)

但我们现有的“国家”却是魔鬼治下的独裁统治。哦,这一点我们早就知道了,我听到了你的反对声,但仅此而已。我要问的是,既然你知道这一切,为什么无动于衷?为什么你允许这些弄权者一步步地,公开地或秘密地,从你这里掠夺权力?那一份份代表着公众的权力,代表着责任和义务的权力,被一点点蚕食,直到有一天,民众手里什么都没有,国家成为罪犯和醉鬼把持下机械般运作的政体。难道你的精神已被滥权者压垮?难道你已忘记自己有权消灭这种体制,而这更是你的道德责任 ?如果一个人连诉求自身权力的勇气都没了,等着他的就只有毁灭。值此终结时日,若我们仍不能振作力量,重拾勇气,仍要延续那份萎靡与颓废,我们自己也将灰飞烟灭。不要用权宜之计遮掩你的怯懦,在犹豫中度过的每一天,在不能直面群魔的每一刻,你的罪过曲线犹如抛物线,在随时间积累着。

这些传单的读者群中,大多数人或许并不清楚如何有效地反对独裁,他们看不到现成的道路。我们想向他们表明,每个人都能为推翻这个政体出力。想推翻这个政府,为这场革命尽早打下基础,采用单个散兵,积怨游勇,出头愤青的方式是不现实的。唯有众多值得信任、勇于行动的人们通力合作,在目标实现、手段方法问题上达成一致的基础上方才可行。我们并没有多少可供选择的手段,可用的就是被动抵抗。被动抵抗的意义和目标就是推翻纳粹。在这场斗争中,我们绝不能退缩,无论采用何种路线方针,无论采取什么行动,无论斗争性质如何,要点就是反纳粹,哪怕要面对直接打击。

我们必须尽快结束这个魔鬼政体。如果法西斯德国在这场战争中胜利,其可怕后果将不可估量,当然德国也不敢做必胜苏军的准备。纳粹的失败是无条件的第一要务,其中所需会在我们的后续传单中讨论。

现在,每一位醒悟过来的反纳粹者一定要问问自己,如何才能用最有效的方式对抗现在的纳粹“政体”,如何才能予之以最鲜明的打击?无疑,还是用被动抵抗的方式。我们不能为每个人的行动提供蓝图,我们只能用一般化的方式为他们提供建议。他们自己一定会找到实现最终目标的办法。

破坏纳粹的军工厂,阻止其战争工业的发展,在各种集会和公众场合曝光纳粹的黑暗,在纳粹党组织内部瓦解他们,想尽办法,阻止纳粹战争机器(这是一部只为支撑和维护纳粹党及其独裁统治而运转的机器)的正常运行,无论在高等学府、职业技校、科研机构、还是实验室、技术部门,都应有我们的战斗身影,来阻断这场罪恶的战争。

在所有为法西斯主义者歌功颂德树威立传的文化机构,在所有依附并粉饰纳粹的艺术部门,在所有纳粹扶植的新闻出版媒体、散布谎言捍卫纳粹意识形态的地方,行动起来!不要给借公共之名的项目一分钱,即使它们打着慈善的旗号,因为那是一种伪装。实际上,其中收益既不会用于红十字会,也不会给予需要它的人们。政府并不需要这笔钱。毕竟,日夜运行的印刷机可以造出任何所需数量的纸币。但百姓却要处在经常性的压力状态下,那是种不容松懈的压力。不要帮着回收金属、纺织品等战争所需。试着说服你所有的熟人,包括那些在社会底层的人,来认识这场无意义的战争,这场没希望胜利的战争,来认识纳粹对我们精神和经济上的双重奴役,认识我们的道德和宗教价值观的毁灭,敦促他们做被动抵抗!

亚里士多德,政治学:“......而且,它是[暴政本质]的一部分,要确保任何个体或政体所说的话,所做的事,都为其掌控,无所隐藏,确保无处不在其监视之下。暴政自身事务却是秘不曝光的。暴政的另一个手段就是穷其国而壮其政,让主体,这一代表着国家的民众或体表着民众的国家,与特权阶层、财富阶层对立起来。将得于民众的钱拿来强兵以维护政体,让普通市民忙于赚钱为生计奔波,既无闲暇亦无机会去共谋国事,也是手段的一部分。暴政倾向于不断煽动战争,以便延续他们的寡头权力。  

English Version
Sabotage in armament plants and war industries, sabotage at all gatherings, rallies, public ceremonies, and organisations of the National Socialist Party. Obstruction of the smooth functioning of the war machine ... Sabotage in all the areas of science and scholarship which further the continuation of the war - whether in universities, technical schools, laboratories, research institutes, or technical bureaus...

All ideal forms of government are utopias. A state cannot be constructed on a purely theoretical basis; rather, it must grow and ripen in the way an individual human being matures. But we must not forget that at the starting point of every civilisation the state was already there in rudimentary form. The family is as old as man himself, and out of this initial bond man, endowed with reason, created for himself a state founded on justice, whose highest law was the common good. The state should exist as a parallel to the divine order, and the highest of all utopias, the civitas dei, is the model which in the end it should approximate. Here we will not pass judgment on the many possible forms of the state - democracy, constitutional monarchy, and so on. But one matter needs to be brought out clearly and unambiguously. Every individual human being has a claim to a useful and just state, a state which secures freedom of the individual as well as the good of the whole. For, according to God's will, man is intended to pursue his natural goal, his earthly happiness, in self-reliance and self-chosen activity, freely and independently within the community of life and work of the nation.

But our present "state" is the dictatorship of evil. "Oh, we've known that for a long time," I hear you object, "and it isn't necessary to bring that to our attention again." But, I ask you, if you know that, why do you not bestir yourselves, why do you allow these men who are in power to rob you step by step, openly and in secret, of one domain of your rights after another, until one day nothing, nothing at all will be left but a mechanised state system presided over by criminals and drunks? Is your spirit already so crushed by abuse that you forget it is your right - or rather, your moral duty - to eliminate this system? But if a man no longer can summon the strength to demand his right, then it is absolutely certain that he will perish. We would deserve to be dispersed through the earth like dust before the wind if we do not muster our powers at this late hour and finally find the courage which up to now we have lacked. Do not hide your cowardice behind a cloak of expediency, for with every new day that you hesitate, failing to oppose this offspring of Hell, your guilt, as in a parabolic curve, grows higher and higher.

Many, perhaps most, of the readers of these leaflets do not see clearly how they can practice an effective opposition. They do not see any avenues open to them. We want to try to show them that everyone is in a position to contribute to the overthrow of this system. It is not possible through solitary withdrawal, in the manner of embittered hermits, to prepare the ground for the overturn of this "government" or bring about the revolution at the earliest possible moment. No, it can be done only by the cooperation of many convinced, energetic people - people who are agreed as to the means they must use to attain their goal. We have no great number of choices as to these means. The only one available is passive resistance. The meaning and the goal of passive resistance is to topple National Socialism, and in this struggle we must not recoil from any course, any action, whatever its nature. At all points we must oppose National Socialism, wherever it is open to attack. We must soon bring this monster of a state to an end. A victory of fascist Germany in this war would have immeasurable, frightful consequences. The military victory over Bolshevism dare not become the primary concern of the Germans. The defeat of the Nazis must unconditionally be the first order of business, the greater necessity of this latter requirement will be discussed in one of our forthcoming leaflets.

And now every convinced opponent of National Socialism must ask himself how he can fight against the present "state" in the most effective way, how he can strike it the most telling blows. Through passive resistance, without a doubt. We cannot provide each man with the blueprint for his acts, we can only suggest them in general terms, and he alone will find the way of achieving this end:

Sabotage in armament plants and war industries, sabotage at all gatherings, rallies, public ceremonies, and organisations of the National Socialist Party. Obstruction of the smooth functioning of the war machine (a machine for war that goes on solely to shore up and perpetuate the National Socialist Party and its dictatorship). Sabotage in all the areas of science and scholarship which further the continuation of the war - whether in universities, technical schools, laboratories, research institutes, or technical bureaus. Sabotage in all cultural institutions which could potentially enhance the "prestige" of the fascists among the people. Sabotage in all branches of the arts which have even the slightest dependence on National Socialism or render it service. Sabotage in all publications, all newspapers, that are in the pay of the "government" and that defend its ideology and aid in disseminating the brown lie. Do not give a penny to public drives (even when they are conducted under the pretence of charity). For this is only a disguise. In reality the proceeds aid neither the Red Cross nor the needy. The government does not need this money; it is not financially interested in these money drives. After all, the presses run continuously to manufacture any desired amount of paper currency. But the populace must be kept constantly under tension, the pressure of the bit must not be allowed to slacken! Do not contribute to the collections of metal, textiles, and the like. Try to convince all your acquaintances, including those in the lower social classes, of the senselessness of continuing, of the hopelessness of this war; of our spiritual and economic enslavement at the hands of the National Socialists; of the destruction of all moral and religious values; and urge them to passive resistance!

Aristotle, Politics: "... and further, it is part [of the nature of tyranny] to strive to see to it that nothing is kept hidden of that which any subject says or does, but that everywhere he will be spied upon, ... and further, to set man against the privileged and the wealthy. Also it is part of these tyrannical measures, to keep the subjects poor, in order to pay the guards and soldiers, and so that they will be occupied with earning their livelihood and will have neither leisure nor opportunity to engage in conspiratorial acts.... Further, [to levy] such taxes on income as were imposed in Syracuse, for under Dionysius the citizens gladly paid out their whole fortunes in taxes within five years. Also, the tyrant is inclined constantly to foment wars."


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